The fourth stage of the proton-k is produced by the energiya rocket and space corporation (formerly the korolev design bureau) and utilizes liquid oxygen and kerosene derivatives as propellants, much like the original sputnik launch vehicle. The main engine is restart able and is known as the 11d58m (rd- 58m). The fourth stage comes in two major variants: the block d without an independent navigation and guidance unit for deep-space missions and the block dm with such a unit for most earth orbital missions. Three models of the block dm are now in use for semi-synchronous missions (11s861), for normal geosynchronous missions (11s86), and for heavy geosynchronous spacecraft (11s861-1).the last was first used in 1994 for the gabapentin 300 mg side effects maiden flight of the gals spacecraft. During the 1993-1994 period no 3-stage versions of proton-k were flown, but 19 flights of the 4-stage model were conducted. All were successful except the mission of 27 may 1993 which failed to achieve orbit due to propellant contamination in the second and third stages. The vehicle returned to flight the following september (references 259-276). Four launch pads for the proton-k were built at baikonur (complexes 81 left and right and 200 left and right), but only two were operational at the end of 1994. The other two were undergoing major overhauls. One of the principal topics concerning the proton-k launch vehicle in recent years has been its entry into the international commercial launch services market.
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